# Curriculum for Pre-kindergarten

## Driven by Pedagogy, Supported by Technology (and not vice versa),

Happy Numbers will make your math centers deliver results.

### MODULE 1 Counting to 5

Students learn the meaning of same, different, alike, larger, and smaller. They identify and match objects based on size, color, shape, and even purpose.

A. Identify two out of three objects that are the sameB. Identify two out of three objects that are differentC. Identify whether two objects are the same or differentD. Identify which of two similar objects is largerE. Identify which of two similar objects is smallerF. Identify which of two similar objects is larger or smallerG. Match pairs of similar items that differ in size and/or colorH. Match pairs of similar items that differ in size and colorI. Match pairs of different items that are used together

Students build upon their understanding of size, color, shape, and purpose to sort dissimilar objects based on a common attribute. They must also ignore objects that do not fit the given descriptors.

Students learn to count objects with 1:1 matching by interacting with each object, either by tapping it or by moving it. They work with uniform objects that are both aligned and scattered. Automatic voice prompts give directions and guidance.

Students match groups of uniform objects to a total written in digits. They work with both aligned and scattered objects to match objects to a number or match a number to objects. They do not necessarily count each individual object, but are encouraged to "see" the total.

A. Identify the number of aligned objectsB. Identify the number of aligned and scattered objectsC. Identify the number of scattered objectsD. Count out objects from a group to match a spoken totalE. Count out objects from a group to match a given digitF. Identify a group of objects with a given totalG. Counting up to 3 practice

Students build their ability to count with 1:1 matching and move in a left to right progression. They are introduced to the concept of "a pair" and develop their visual recognition of totals without counting. Students begin to create parts (or groups) for totals of 4 or 5 objects.

A. Count to identify the total of up to 5 identical objectsB. Number up to 5 objects from left to rightC. Identify a set of objects with a given totalD. Separate pairs of objects from a group of 4E. Separate objects into two pairs and count to reach a total of 4F. Identify totals of up to 4 identical objectsG. Split a set of 4 objects into two groups in different ways (Part 1)H. Split a set of 4 objects into two groups in different ways (Part 2)I. Split a set of 5 objects into two groups in different ways (Part 1)J. Split a set of 5 objects into two groups in different ways (Part 2)

Students match groups of uniform objects to a total written in digits. They work with both aligned and scattered objects to match objects to a number or match a number to objects. They do not necessarily count each individual object, but are encouraged to "see" the total.

Students work with sets of identical objects to determine the total when one more is added. They may or may not count each object as they begin to rely on their ability to visually recognize totals up to five.

Students work with sets of identical objects to determine the total when one is removed. They may or may not count each object as they begin to rely on their ability to visually recognize totals up to five.

### MODULE 2 Shapes

Students identify circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles of different sizes, colors, and orientation. Students also work with triangles and rectangles with different proportions. They learn the positions above, below, next to, in front of, and behind.

A. Identify circles from among a set of two-dimensional shapesB. Identify squares from among a set of two-dimensional shapesC. Identify triangles from among a set of two-dimensional shapesD. Identify rectangles from among a set of two-dimensional shapesE. Identify the position above or below a given object (Part 1)F. Identify the position above or below a given object (Part 2)G. Move objects up or down as instructedH. Position a shape above or below another shape as instructedI. Position an object next to another object as instructedJ. Identify an object based on the position near or betweenK. Position an object in front of or behind another object as instructed

### MODULE 3 Counting to 10

Students continue developing their ability to count with 1:1 matching, moving in a left to right progression as well as from top to bottom to count objects in rows. They continue to develop their visual recognition of totals without counting.

A. Recognize that one more than 5 is 6B. Count 6 similar aligned objects from left to rightC. Tap objects to count the total to 6D. Identify totals of up to 6 identical objectsE. Recognize that one more than 6 is 7F. Count 7 similar aligned objects from left to rightG. Tap objects to count the total to 7H. Identify totals of up to 7 identical objectsI. Align groups of identical objects and identify the totalJ. Count identical objects in two rows from left to right, top to bottom

Students work with groups of identical objects to split totals in different ways (a precursor to learning fact families). They count objects in different alignments, including circular, two rows, and vertical column. In the final exercise, they see that when objects are rearranged, the total remains the same.

A. Combine and split groups of 6 identical objects and determine totalsB. Split a group of 6 identical objects into two groups in different waysC. Combine and split groups of 7 identical objects and determine totalsD. Split a group of 7 identical objects into two groups in different waysE. Distribute and count 7 identical objects aligned in a circular arrangementF. Distribute and count 6 identical objects aligned in two rowsG. Distribute and count 5 or 6 identical objects aligned in a columnH. Distribute a given number of identical objects

Students continue developing their ability to count with 1:1 matching, moving in a left to right progression as well as from top to bottom to count objects in rows.

Students match groups of uniform objects to a total written in digits. They work with both aligned and scattered objects to match objects to a number or match a number to objects. Students begin to create parts (or groups) for totals of up to eight objects.

A. Identify the total of 8 identical objects aligned in two groupsB. Split a set of 8 objects into two groups in different waysC. Identify the total of 8 identical objects aligned in a circleD. Identify the total of 8 identical objects aligned in two rowsE. Identify the total of 7 identical objects aligned verticallyF. Count out a given total from a set of identical objects

Students are introduced to the concept of 0. They continue developing their ability to count with 1:1 matching, moving in a left to right progression as well as from top to bottom to count objects in rows.

A. Recognize that 0 is an amount that is one less than 1B. Determine which set of identical objects has a total of 0C. Determine totals of identical objects, including 0D. Recognize that one more than 8 is 9E. Count 9 similar aligned objects from left to rightF. Identify totals of up to 9 identical objectsG. Align groups of identical objects and identify the total

Students work with groups of identical objects to split totals in different ways (a precursor to learning fact families). They count objects in different alignments, including circular and rows. In the final exercise, they see that when objects are rearranged, the total remains the same.

A. Combine and split groups of 9 identical objects and determine totalsB. Split a group of 9 identical objects into two groups in different waysC. Count 7 identical objects aligned in a circular arrangementD. Distribute and count 9 identical objects aligned in a circular arrangementE. Distribute a given number of identical objects

Students continue developing their ability to count with 1:1 matching, moving in a left to right progression as well as from top to bottom to count objects in rows.

Students work with groups of identical objects to split totals in different ways (a precursor to learning fact families). They count objects in different alignments, including circular and two rows. In the final exercise, they see that when objects are rearranged, the total remains the same.

### MODULE 4. Comparison of Length, Weight, Capacity, and Numbers to 5

Students are introduced to the terms "taller," "higher," and "about the same" regarding height and length. They work with familiar objects to make determinations about height or weight, eventually manipulating objects to create the desired height or weight.

A. Determine which of two objects is tallerB. Determine which of two objects is longer or shorterC. Identify two objects that are about the same heightD. Identify two objects that are about the same lengthE. Identify an object that is about the same length or height as a given objectF. Add cars or take them away to make a train the same length as a given trainG. Add cubes or take them away to make a tower the same height as a given tower

Students are introduced to the terms "heavier," "lighter," and "about the same" regarding weight. They first work with familiar objects to make determinations about weight based on intuition. Then, they learn how a balance scale (see-saw) works and use that to determine comparative weights.

A. Determine which of two objects is heavier or lighterB. Determine which of two objects on a balance scale is heavier or lighterC. Determine which of two balance scales holds objects that are about the same weightD. Identify which picture of objects on a balance scale matches a description of their weight (Level 1)E. Identify which picture of objects on a balance scale matches a description of their weight (Level 2)

### MODULE 5 Addition and Subtraction Stories

Students count identical objects aligned in a row. Then additional objects, identical except for the color, are added to the row. Students count those objects and then determine the total.

Students count identical objects aligned in a row. Then some of the objects are taken away (balloons pop, pears are eaten, etc.). Students count the remaining objects to determine the difference.

Students move toward more abstract thinking by using cubes to represent real objects (birds, balloons, apples, etc.). They build understanding that the number of cubes represents the objects with 1:1 matching and can be used in determining totals in simple addition stories.

A. Match cubes 1:1 with objects aligned in a row (Level 1)B. Match cubes 1:1 with objects aligned in a row (Level 2)C. Determine the number of objects represented by cubesD. Match cubes 1:1 with objects aligned in a row (Level 3)E. Determine the number of objects represented by cubes in an addition scenario (Level 1)F. Determine the number of objects represented by cubes in an addition scenario (Level 2)G. Determine the total of two groups of objects based on their representation in cubes

Students move toward more abstract thinking by using cubes to represent real objects . They build understanding that the number of cubes represents the objects with 1:1 matching and can be used in determining totals in simple subtraction stories.