# Curriculum for Kindergarten

## Driven by Pedagogy, Supported by Technology (and not vice versa),

Happy Numbers will make your math centers deliver results.

### MODULE 1 Numbers to 10

Students consider the size, shape, and color of objects to determine whether they are the same, different, or alike. Additionally, they are introduced to dissimilar objects that "match" because of a related function, such as a sock and a shoe.

A. Identify two out of three objects that are the sameB. Identify two out of three objects that are differentC. Identify whether two objects are the same or differentD. Recognize that two objects can be alike but not the sameE. Identify whether or not two objects are alikeF. Match pairs of objects based on function

Students sort similar objects based on narrow categories (such as "bears"), broad categories (such as "clothes"), and self-determined categories. They identify objects that do not belong in a group without being given the name of the category. Finally, students count to determine the total number of objects in a group.

A. Sort similar objects into given categoriesB. Identify an object that does not belong in a given setC. Sort objects into self-determined groupsD. Sort similar objects into given categories and determine the total in eachE. Identify an object that does not belong in a given set and determine the totalF. Determine which groups of similar objects contain a given total

Students count in sequence to determine position or total up to 5. They relate objects to digits and see digits in a variety of fonts. They work with aligned objects, scattered objects, fingers, and the number line. Students learn strategies for counting with 1:1 match and learn that sets of objects with the same total can be aligned in different ways.

A. Match a numbered set of 1, 2, or 3 cubes to an identical numbered set of cubesB. Match numbered and non-numbered sets of cubes to a number 1-3C. Match sets of cubes to numbers 1-3D. Match numbers 1-3 to their positions on a number line labeled with numbers and dot patternsE. Identify a numbered set of cubes that matches an identical set of 4 or 5 numbered cubesF. Match numbered and non-numbered sets of cubes to number 4 or 5G. Type numbers in sequence to identify 4 or 5 aligned objectsH. Count 2-5 aligned objects to determine the totalI. Match numbers 1-5 to arrangements of fingers displayed on a handJ. Match sets of cubes to numbers 1-5K. Identify numbered sets of cubes that match a given total up to 5L. Match numbers 1-5 to their positions on a number line labeled with numbers and dot patternsM. Align scattered objects to count and determine the totalN. Count to find the total of scattered objects by matching 1:1 numbers to objectsO. Identify a set of scattered objects that matches a given total up to 5P. Decompose a set of 3 objects into two groups and identify as addends

Students use digits 1-5 to sequence objects and to determine position or total. They work with aligned objects, scattered objects, and the number line. They explore the composition of the number 3 and begin using +, -, and = signs.

A. Identify sets of 0 among sets of scattered objetsB. Identify a set of scattered objects that matches a given total up to 5C. Sequence scattered objects numbered 1-5 in ascending orderD. Continue a count sequence on a number line from a given point to reach a given positionE. Identify missing numbers up to 5 on a numbered number lineF. Identify the object at a given position in a set of aligned objectsG. Identify the position of an object in a set of aligned objectsH. Decompose a set of 3 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationI. Identify missing numbers in equations to show composition of 3 given a model of base-10 blocks

Students count in sequence to determine position or total up to 9. They relate objects to digits and see digits in a variety of fonts. They work with aligned objects, scattered objects, fingers, and the number line. Students learn strategies for counting with 1:1 match and learn that sets of objects with the same total can be aligned in different ways.

A. Identify the number of fingers up to 7 displayed on two handsB. Match numbers 0-7 to arrangements of fingers displayed on two handsC. Identify a set of aligned objects that matches a given total up to 7D. Match numbered patterns of dots to an identical numbered pattern of dots up to 7E. Identify sets of numbered cubes that match a given total of 6 or 7F. Match numbers 1-7 to their positions on a number line labeled with numbers and dot patternsG. Count objects as they move away from a set and identify the totalH. Count scattered objects two different ways to arrive at the same totalI. Identify the number of fingers up to 8 displayed on two handsJ. Match numbers 0-8 to arrangements of fingers displayed on two handsK. Identify a set of aligned objects that matches a given total up to 8L. Identify sets of numbered cubes that match a given total up to 9M. Count objects as they move away from a set and identify the totalN. Count scattered objects two different ways to arrive at the same totalO. Identify the total number of scattered objects after a known total has been rearranged

Students work increasingly with 0 and with numbers 6-10 to determine totals and recognize digits. They work with scattered objects, non-identical objects, fingers, and the number line.

A. Determine the total of up to 9 scattered objectsB. Count out a given number of objects from a larger setC. Determine the total of up to 9 scattered objectsD. Match patterns of dots to their numbered position on a number lineE. Determine the total of up to 9 non-identical scattered objectsF. Match sets of non-identical objects to numbers up to 9G. Match numbered patterns of dots to an identical numbered pattern of dots up to 9H. Identify sets of numbered cubes that match a given total 0-10I. Identify a set of scattered objects that matches a given total up to 10J. Match numbered patterns of dots to an identical numbered pattern of dots up to 10K. Match numbers 0-10 to their position on a number line labeled with numbers and dot patterns

Students use familiar representations (objects, base-10 blocks, the number line, and equations) to explore the concept of one more. They begin to count on rather than count all.

A. Identify the object at a given position in a set of aligned objectsB. Continue a count sequence on a number line from a given point to reach a given positionC. Identify missing numbers up to 9 on a numbered number lineD. Continue a count sequence on a number line from a given pointE. Solve +1 equations based on a model of base-10 blocksF. Solve +1 equations based on a number line modelG. Solve +1 problems based on a known total and a scenario using objectsH. Solve +1 equations

Students use familiar representations (objects, base-10 blocks, the number line, and equations) to explore the concept of one less. They alternate between +1 and -1 to solve problems.

A. Determine one more and one less on a number lineB. Continue a count sequence on a number line from a given point counting backC. Solve -1 equations based on a model of base-10 blocksD. Solve -1 equations based on a number line modelE. Solve -1 problems based on a known total and a scenario using objectsF. Solve -1 equationsG. Solve +1 and -1 equations based on a model of base-10 blocksH. Solve +1 and -1 equations based on a number line modelI. Solve +1 and -1 problems based on a known total and a scenario using objectsJ. Solve +1 and -1 equations

### MODULE 2 Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Shapes

Students become familiar with the appearance and names of two-dimensional shapes. They work with squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons. Students identify examples from among non-examples. Our sound feature allows non-readers access to shape names.

A. Identify squares and circles based on an example and shape namesB. Match shape names to squares and circlesC. Identify squares and circles based on shape namesD. Identify squares, circles, and triangles based on an example and shape namesE. Match shape names to squares, circles, and trianglesF. Identify squares, circles, and triangles based on shape namesG. Identify squares, circles, and triangles based on shape namesH. Identify triangles and rectangles based on an example and shape namesI. Match shape names to triangles and rectanglesJ. Identify circles, triangles, and rectangles based on shape namesK. Identify squares and hexagons based on an example and shape namesL. Match shape names to triangles and hexagonsM. Identify circles, triangles, and hexagons based on shape namesN. Identify squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons based on shape namesO. Match shape names to squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons

Students explore spatial relationships by describing relative positions and directions. They use the words above, below, up, down, in front, behind, beside, and between and manipulate objects to reflect these relationships. Our sound feature helps even non-readers succeed with these language-based exercises.

A. Identify positions above and below relative to an objectB. Describe the relationship between two objects using the word above or belowC. Place an object in a given position above or below another objectD. Place two objects in given positions above or below a third objectE. Move an object in a given direction up or downF. Identify the direction of a moving object as up or downG. Move an object in a given direction up or downH. Place an object in a given position in front of or behind another object (part 1)I. Place an object in a given position in front of or behind another object (part 2)J. Place an object in a given position beside or between other objectsK. Place objects in given positions beside or between other objects

### MODULE 3 Comparison of Length, Weight, Capacity, and Numbers to 10

Students compare two sets of objects using the words more, fewer, and same. They work with similar objects, both aligned and scattered.

Students compare two sets of objects using the words more, fewer, and same. They work with similar and dissimilar objects, both aligned and scattered, in vertical and horizontal alignments. Finally, they begin to compare numbers.

A. Identify more when comparing two sets of aligned cubes that are similar and dissimilarB. Identify more when comparing two sets of cubes with or without aligning them firstC. Identify more when comparing two sets of similar and dissimilar objects with or without aligning them firstD. Identify more when comparing two sets of dissimilar objects with unequal alignmentsE. Identify more or fewer when comparing two sets of similar scattered objectsF. Identify more when comparing two numbers

### MODULE 4 Number Pairs, Addition and Subtraction to 10

Students use familiar base-10 blocks, scenarios with objects, the number line, and equations to explore basic concepts of addition. Students determine both sums and missing addends as they gradually move from concrete models to abstract equations.

A. Use cubes to represent an addition scenario based on objects and match cube patterns to addition scenariosB. Decompose a set of 3 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationC. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 3D. Decompose a set of 4 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationE. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 4F. Determine a missing addend in equations with a sum of 4G. Decompose a set of 5 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationH. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 5I. Determine a missing addend in equations with a sum of 5J. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach sums of 3-5K. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach sums of 3-5L. Solve +/- equations within 5 based on movements on a number line

Students use familiar base-10 blocks, scenarios with objects, the number line, and equations to extend their understanding of addition to sums of 6, 7, and 8. Students determine both sums and missing addends as they gradually move from concrete models to abstract equations.

A. Identify a number line model that represents a written scenario within 8B. Decompose a set of 6 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationC. Complete addition equations with a sum of 6 based on a model of base-10 blocksD. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 6E. Model addition scenarios to 6 on a number line and solve a related equationF. Decompose a set of 7 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationG. Decompose a set of 7 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationH. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 7I. Model addition scenarios to 7 on a number line and solve a related equationJ. Decompose a set of 8 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationK. Complete addition equations with a sum of 8 based on a model of base-10 blocksL. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 8M. Model addition scenarios to 8 on a number line and solve a related equation

Students deepen their understanding of addition by strengthening the connection between concrete objects, base-10 blocks, and equations. They determine both sums and missing addends. They record equations, including the + symbol.

A. Solve addition equations to 5 based on a model of base-10 blocksB. Model addition equations to 5 with base-10 blocks and solve a related equationC. Determine a missing addend and sum in addition equations to 5 based on a scenario with objectsD. Record addition scenarios with objects as equations to 5E. Use base-10 blocks to represent addition scenarios with objects to 5F. Represent addition scenarios with objects using base-10 blocks and record as an equation with a sum of 6G. Represent addition scenarios with objects using base-10 blocks and record as an equation with a sum of 7H. Represent addition scenarios with objects using base-10 blocks and record as an equation with a sum of 8

Students use familiar base-10 blocks, scenarios with objects, the number line, and equations to explore basic concepts of subtraction. Students determine both differences and missing subtrahends as they gradually move from concrete models to abstract equations. They also relate subtraction to addition through exploration of fact families.

A. Use base-10 blocks to represent subtraction scenarios with objects within 5 and identify base-10 block patterns that represent subtraction scenarios with objects within 5B. Solve subtraction equations within 5 based on a model of base-10 blocksC. Model subtraction equations within 5 with base-10 blocks and solve a related equationD. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 4 based on a model of base-10 blocksE. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 5 based on a model of base-10 blocksF. Complete +/- equations within the same fact family based on a model of base-10 blocksG. Determine a missing subtrahend in subtraction equations within 5H. Identify subtraction equations within 5 that have a given differenceI. Determine a missing addend or subtrahend in +/- equations within 5J. Identify +/- equations within 5 that have a given sum or differenceK. Record +/- number line scenarios within 5 as equationsL. Record subtraction scenarios with objects within 5 as equations with a difference of 0M. Record subtraction scenarios on a number line within 5 as equations with a difference of 0N. Use base-10 blocks to model a subtraction scenario with objects within 8 and record as an equationO. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 6 based on a model of base-10 blocksP. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 7 based on a model of base-10 blocksQ. Identify a base-10 block model that represents a +/- scenario with objects or an equation within 9

Students use familiar scenarios with objects, base-10 blocks, and equations to extend their understanding of addition and subtraction to include 9 and 10. Students explore the composition of these totals to strengthen their awareness of number bonds.

A. Solve +/- equations within 9 based on a model of base-10 blocksB. Decompose a set of 9 objects into two groups and identify as addends in an equationC. Complete addition equations to 9 based on a model of base-10 blocksD. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 9E. Complete addition equations to 10 based on a model of base-10 blocksF. Match two sets of uniform objects to make a total of 10G. Determine a missing addend in a visual model to reach a sum of 10

Students apply their understanding of composition of 9 and 10 to solve missing-addend problems.

Students work with both addition and subtraction to reinforce understanding of underlying concepts. They represent scenarios with objects using base-10 blocks and represent base-10 blocks as equations.

A. Use base-10 blocks to model an addition scenario with objects to 9 and record as an equationB. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 9 based on a model of base-10 blocksC. Model +/- scenarios within 9 on a number line and solve a related equationD. Model +/- scenarios within 10 on a number line and solve a related equationE. Record a number line addition scenario to 10 as and equation and solve a related subtraction equationF. Complete +/- equations within the fact family of 10 based on a model of base-10 blocksG. Determine a missing subtrahend in subtraction equations from 10H. Complete +/- equations within 5 based on a model of base-10 blocksI. Complete subtraction equations within 5 based on a scenario with objectsJ. Record subtraction scenarios with objects within 5 as equationsK. Use base-10 blocks to represent subtraction scenarios with objects within 5 and record as an equationL. Record +/- scenarios with base-10 blocks as equations within 10M. Model subtraction scenarios from 10 on a number line and solve a related equation

Students continue to complete familiar tasks, now using 0 as an addend, subtrahend, or difference. They use scenarios with objects, a number line, and equations.

### MODULE 5 Numbers 10 - 20 and Counting to 100

Students differentiate a "ten" from ones using a ten-frame or rod. They begin to explore the composition of 2-digit numbers and number names. These exercises form a foundation for later learning about place value and addition strategies. Students use the vertical number line for the first time.

A. Group objects and base-10 blocks into a ten and ones and determine totalsB. Determine the total number of objects or base-10 blocks grouped into a ten and onesC. Determine the total number of objects by filling a 10-frameD. Determine a missing teen number on a number line and identify its written name

Students further their understanding of teen numbers by applying them to positions on a number line and simple equations.

Students sort, count, add and subtract a ten and ones. They see a group of ten displayed to the right of ones as well as to the left and see both vertical and horizontal alignments of 10 objects. They solve for different positions in +/- equations in which all of the ones or a whole ten are added or subtracted.

A. Sort base-10 blocks into tens and ones and determine totalsB. Determine a 2-digit total based on totals of tens and ones using objects or base-10 blocksC. Solve +/- equations in the teens with and without a model of base-10 blocksD. Record +/- equations in the teens based on a model of base-10 blocksE. Complete +/- equations in the teens with and without a model of base-10 blocks